René Lalique

Founded in 1888 by René-Jules Lalique, the French jeweler and glassmaker had by 1890 opened his first workshop in Paris’ Opera District at 20, Rue Thérèse.  From this new location he experimented with glass and enamel fused with diamonds and gold to create some astonishingly beautiful statement jewelry. 

He usually stamped his Art Nouveau creations with the distinctive sword and “RL” motif.

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During his years of study at Paris’ “Ecole des Arts Decoratifs” and continued studies in Sydenham, SE London, Lalique’s apprenticeship included providing design services to companies such as Cartier. 

By 1905 he had become very well known for his jewelry and opened a retail shop at 24, Place Vendôme. The new store was adjacent to that of Francoise Coty, the noted Corsican parfumier. Lalique started making perfume bottles, in the Art Deco style, for Coty’s broad range of products including “Ambre Antique” “Heliotrope” and “Styx”. 

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In 1921 Lalique, opened his glassworks in Wingen-sur-Moder in the Eastern French Province of Alsace. From here he further developed his signature style through the contrast of combining clear and frosted glass manufactured using the “cire perdu” or “lost waxtechnique.

Between 1925 and 1931 Lalique’s new factory focused on glass car bonnet ornaments. These wonderful frosted glass mascots, which could be illuminated for maximum effect, graced the bonnets and radiator covers of cars designed by Hispano Suiza, Bugatti and Bentley.

The Breves Gallery in London’s Knightsbridge was retained by Lalique to sell to British customers and they subsequently acquired commercial rights to Lalique mascots for the world. The name “Breves Gallery London” was stamped on each mascot’s mount. 

The mounting rings offered by the Breves Gallery meant that the car’s owner could add to the aesthetics of their already beautifully styled cars by the addition of these trophy mascots.

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During this era, a range of twenty-nine designs were made available including the famous “Sirene” (“Mermaid”) statuette, which was available in two sizes.

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Lalique also sold the same products mounted on a metal or glass base as paperweights. 

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“La Grande Libellule” (the Large Dragonfly), “Five Horses” – the first mascot to be commissioned in 1925 for use on the Citroen’s 5CV – “Victoire” (“Spirit of the Wind”) – which originally sold for £2-12/6 – “Vitesse” and “Chrysis” are personal favourites. 

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The base of each genuine Lalique glass mascot is signed with a stamped, molded or etched signature that usually simply reads “R. Lalique”.

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Seven of the original designs continue to appear in the current Lalique catalogue. These include “Chrysis”, “Eagle’s Head” and “Cock’s Head”. Lalique & Co, which ceased to be in family ownership in 2008, still sells these designs as paperweights.

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Inevitable Heath and Safety concerns have weighted heavily on the car mascot market. Since 1968 in the USA and 1974 in Europe, cars have had to conform to rigorous rules governing exterior projections that are fixed to their bonnets. 

Rolls Royce invested heavily and devised a retractable solution – see our earlier piece on the iconic Spirit of Ecstasy here – The Spirit of Ecstasy – Mercedes-Benz also developed a spring-loaded flexible mount that folds on impact.

Image Credits – R Lalique et Cie, Maison Coty and Wartski.

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Land Rover Defender

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The Land Rover Defender (known by most – depending on the wheelbase chosen – as either a Land Rover 90 or 110) was a British built 4 x 4 utility vehicle developed from and finally replacing the iconic Land Rover Series first launched in 1948. First introduced in 1983 the last model of this design classic was produced in January 2016 when European design regulations rendered the Defender’s design redundant.

The post 1983 may seem in many respects similar to Series III version of the Land Rover but this re-imagined Land Rover had for example permanent four wheel drive – derived from the Range Rover – and progressively over succeeding years more powerful and varied choices of engines were made available from 2.25-litre petrol and diesel engines, to 2.5-litre petrol up to 3.5-litre petrol only version and a V8 was particularly used on the 90 version.

Either by cleaver placing or by coincidence, the use of larger 4×4 as private vehicles – as opposed to their more agricultural focussed predecessors, played well into Land Rover marketing. Using the badge “County” the Defender 4x4s were sold as multi-purpose family vehicles with improved interior trim, ride, colour options, wheel rims and seating.

Land Rover was beginning to capitalise on its home market and to make an impact on the European market but elsewhere in the world the legacy of poor quality from the days of British Leyland meant that in other target markets such as the Far East Toyota Land Cruisers and Nissan’s Patrol were dominant.

Due to the introduction of the Discover model in 1989 the old 90/110 was re-christened the Defender when it acquired the new and well performing 200Tdi engine which improved the Defenders ability to cruise at higher speeds and tow heavier loads.

In 1998, the upcoming Euro III emissions regulations the Defender was given an all-new 2.5-litre, five-cylinder in-line turbodiesel engine, badged the Td5. For 2002 model year, the Td5 engine was further refined to satisfy ever-more stringent emission regulations. Again to clear emissions hurdles for the 2007 model the TD5 engine was replaced by Ford’s Dagenham built DuraTorq line engine.  Combine this with the replacement of  four inward-facing seats with two forward-facing seats and the Defender 90 4×4 a four-seater vehicle and the Defender 110 4×4 a seven-seater.

External and internal safety regulations due in 2015 spelt the death knell of the Defender. On the plus side various reports suggest that the Defender’s replacement may be announced by Land Rover – in part based on the DC1oo concept car shown at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show – before the end of 2106 – we’ll have to wait and see.

Photo from Land Rover

 

Kodak Super 8

Kodak Super 8 – re-imagine a classic

Designed by Yves Behar, Ilgu Cha, Sarah Neurnberger, Steven Overman, Danielle Atkins.

Available from Q4 2016

Kodak are predicting an analogue renaissance with Steven Spielberg and JJ Abrams – both “real” film devotees – have been very enthusiastic about this launch.

A revived version of the 1965 original Super 8 Camera that revolutionised amateur filmmaking.

The 2016 version combines the core of traditional filmmaking techniques – using the Super 8mm amateur format analogue film – with enhanced digital features for a new generation.

Included is a new digitally enhanced version is very flexible view finder – which uniquely for a Super 8 shows you what you are filming – a body mic that syncs to an SD memory card, and HDMI connectors to take to your post production suite – probably on your lap top. With the purchase of your cartridge you pay for the film and the processing which includes the return of an analogue reel of film plays digital links in 4k quality to post to the Cloud for your own post production.

The Super 8mm cartridge loading eliminated the need for threading the film and meant that a complete 50-foot cartridge could be shot without interruption.

The cartridge fed back setting formation to the camera about the speed (ASA) of the film and light filter. In 1973 a magnetic strip was added to the side of the film that made it possible to record sound and visuals simultaneously.

Still a preferred medium for short films, commercial and music videos the unique aesthetic quality of the Super 8 is re-imagined in this compact and easy to use film camera.

Its not for those seeking a quick footage fix but for those keen to to learn more Kodak have a series of tips on using your Super 8 – http://www.kodak.com/Consumer/Products/Super8/Super-8-tips/default.htm

Photo by Kodak