Peter Carl Faberge – “Europe’s Greatest Jeweller”

Pick any TV antique show and the item that is likely to cause the sharpest collective intake of breath is an object fashioned by the late 19th century, St Petersburg Imperial Court jeweller, Peter Carl Fabergé (30 May 1846 – 24 September 1920).

Fabergé was the first of two boys born to a Baltic German jeweller father, Gustav Fabergé and his Danish wife, Charlotte Jungstedt. Gustav’s family was Huguenot of French origins who had fled France in the early 1800s.

In 1862, having retired from the family’s jewelry business, Carl’s parents moved to Dresden, where he studied for several years. Carl was heavily influenced by the contents of Dresden’s ‘Green Vaults’ that contained inspirational figurative jewellery and, somewhat prophetically, various ornate Egg designs.

During his apprenticeship, Fabergé travelled extensively in Europe but in 1872 he returned to St Petersburg where for the next ten years, under the tutelage of Hiskias Pendin, his father’s trusted work-master, he worked to engage the Imperial Court with his beautiful bejeweled objects. During this time he also worked in Tsar Alexander III’s “Winter Palace” – The Hermitage – where he was entrusted to renovate ancient and damaged artifacts.

The Fabergé family business was located on Bolshaya Morskaya Street and was described as a dealer in “petty jewellery and spectacles”. In 1882, Carl took over the business and in 1885 his German-born designer brother, Agathon, joined him. They formed a formidable team and under Carl’s leadership they determined that the business would become “Europe’s Greatest Jeweller”.

Between 1882 and 1917 it is believed that the business made around 200,000 unique objects.

Oddly for a man who’s output and reputation are somewhat defined and characterized by bejeweled objects featuring diamonds and other rare and precious stones, Fabergé was said to be ambivalent about the gems used and more interest in the worthiness of his pieces as art rather than an object of great value. He described himself as an “Artist Jeweller”.

The awards from international exhibitions followed and Fabergé’s place at the heart of the Imperial Court was secured.

Perhaps the items of most international renown to bear the “Fabergé ” name are the astonishingly intricate Easter Eggs. The first was produced in 1885 and was a comparatively simple object. Commissioned by the then Tsar, Alexander III, Fabergé made the “Hen’s Egg” of white enamel egg with a yellow gold interior and accompanying gold chick. It was an Easter gift for Alexander’s wife Maria Feodorovna, an existing Fabergé customer. Her first purchase of a pair of cuff links had assured the House of Fabergé of work as the jeweller of choice for the fine gifts that the Imperial Court was obliged to give to visiting dignitaries. The beautiful objects performed an almost ambassadorial role boasting of the great beauty that Russia was capable of.

On 1st May 1885, so delighted was Maria Feodorovna with her gift, that she bestowed the title “Goldsmith by special appointment to the Imperial Crown” upon Carl.

Access to the Hermitage meant that Carl could study the great works preserved in its huge collection. This re-ignited his interest in the art of enameling that the House of Fabergé used to astonishing effect. His preferred method was a process known as “guillot charge” in which concentric lines are engraved onto the surface of an object, which is then carefully coated with layers of liquid and coloured glass, which when fired, build up on the object’s surface. The stunning results achieved using this method gives the piece both a depth of colour and radiated light.

In 1887, Tsar Alexander gave Faberge a free hand in the design of subsequent Easter Eggs, his conditions were that they had to be intricate and contain a surprise. He commissioned one egg annually for his wife.

In 1889 Nicholas, his brother and several courtiers, undertook a nearly year long journey by sea from Trieste, on Italy’s Adriatic coast, to Vladivostok. He left with a large quantity of Fabergé pieces that would be given as gifts to his various hosts. At some point in the journey supplies ran short and more were requested from St Petersburg. The Siamese Royal family, who welcomed Nicholas to what is now Thailand, was particularly enchanted by Faberge’s Eggs and became avid collectors and Fabergé customer. The 1891 Easter Egg depicts a golden replica of the Nicholas’ ship on an aquamarine tablet sitting inside a deep green egg decorated with ‘waves’ of gold inlaid with diamonds.

The 1891 Easter Egg

Upon the Tsar’s death in 1894, his son Tsar Nicolas II continued the tradition and commissioned one egg each year for both his wife and Mother, by 1917 a total of fifty eggs had been made. Maria Feodorovna had thirty and her daughter in law, Alexandra Feodorovna, had twenty.

In addition to intricacy of the Swan and Peacock automatons eggs, probably the most beautiful egg is the “Winter Egg” of 1911 (our featured image). Designed for Maria Feodorovna and secreted a basket of spring flowers inside a white crystal egg engraved with frost and inlaid with white diamonds.

Whilst many of the eggs are now in private collections the whereabouts of up to fifteen are still unknown.

The influence of the stylized chrysanthemums from the Imperial Court in Peking returned to St Petersburg after Nicholas’ visit inspired Fabergé to create a series of flower studies including the Lily of The Valley, Violets and Cornflowers. Many students of Fabergé’s work believe his flowers to be his very finest.

In 1900 the workshop and retail premises of the House of Fabergé moved to bigger premises on Bolshaya Morskaya Street. Carl had his own apartment ‘over the shop’. Output had to be stepped up and at its height the business employed over 300 jewelers, goldsmiths and stonemasons. The organisation of the business was divided into small teams under work-masters who operated and were incentivized by effectively running their own businesses under the Fabergé umbrella. A few were permitted to add their own initials to the company’s mark. Untypically for the time, the staff saw the benefit of an in-house doctor and a daily canteen.

In 1903 the House of Fabergé opened its first store in London, at 173 Bond Street. Fabergé’s objects become the gift for Edwardian lovers. Whether it was a simple bejeweled eyed rabbit given to a loved one at a country house party or a cigarette case in cobalt blue enamel with a diamond inlaid serpent biting its own tail, given by his “favourite”, Mrs. Kepple, to King Edward VII, the shop specialised in discrete gifts.

The growth and development of the Fabergé business was conducted in the rarified air of the Russian Imperial Court where the Royal Family’s tastes were excessive. They seemed oblivious to the suffering of more lowly Russians. Famine and cold killed many. The Winter Palace tragedy in 1905 seemed an inevitable turning point. By 1914, a year after the flamboyant celebrations of the 300th anniversary of the Russian Throne, Russia entered the First World War. Lacking a military training many of Fabergé’s skilled staff were killed in the early months of the war.

By 1917 the Russian Revolution was underway and the Bolsheviks nationalized the Fabergé business. Carl was said to be heart broken and left on the last diplomatic train out of St Petersburg and headed for Switzerland. He died in Lausanne 1920. Following his wife’s death, five years later, their son Eugene buried their ashes in neighboring graves in Cannes in the South of France.

To the shock of the civilized world, Tsar Nicholas II and his family were summarily executed in Yekaterinburg in 1918. Several of the female children had enormous quantities of diamonds sewn into their bodices off which bullets were said to ricochet.

Post 1918 many Russian aristocrats sought to sell their Fabergé pieces. USA dealers including Armand Hammer amassed vast collections that they returned to New York in the early 1930’s to sell. The newly rich, having recently emerged from the ashes of the Wall Street Crash into the Jazz Age, was a ready market.

Hammer was approached in 1937 by Russian émigré, Sam Reuben, who sought a name for his new perfume business, Hammer suggested Fabergé. This saw an explosion in the 1970’s of fragrance products bearing the Fabergé name often accompanied by sexy images of heartthrobs such as Farah Fawcett. In the mid 1980’s a TV advert featuring former heavyweight boxer, Henry Cooper, encouraged young men that “Nothing beat the great smell of Brut!”

The Fabergé family sued, seeking to protect their ‘name’. They settled for $25,000 and Reuben sold his business a few years later for $24m

It is hard to see how the worlds of Fabergé’s as the purveyor of fine court jewellery and the promoter of “Brut” to masses could have been more different!

In 2009 a group of financiers acquired the worldwide exploitation rights to the Fabergé intellectual property and have revived, with the aid of several small European artisan jewellers and members of the Fabergé family, a new jewellery business that is loyal to the qualities and tastes of the Founder.

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All of Aestheticons posts – aside from some imagery – are the original property and all rights are reserved. Copyright Mark FR Wilkins 2021

René Lalique

Founded in 1888 by René-Jules Lalique, the French jeweler and glassmaker had by 1890 opened his first workshop in Paris’ Opera District at 20, Rue Thérèse.  From this new location he experimented with glass and enamel fused with diamonds and gold to create some astonishingly beautiful statement jewelry. 

He usually stamped his Art Nouveau creations with the distinctive sword and “RL” motif.

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During his years of study at Paris’ “Ecole des Arts Decoratifs” and continued studies in Sydenham, SE London, Lalique’s apprenticeship included providing design services to companies such as Cartier. 

By 1905 he had become very well known for his jewelry and opened a retail shop at 24, Place Vendôme. The new store was adjacent to that of Francoise Coty, the noted Corsican parfumier. Lalique started making perfume bottles, in the Art Deco style, for Coty’s broad range of products including “Ambre Antique” “Heliotrope” and “Styx”. 

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In 1921 Lalique, opened his glassworks in Wingen-sur-Moder in the Eastern French Province of Alsace. From here he further developed his signature style through the contrast of combining clear and frosted glass manufactured using the “cire perdu” or “lost waxtechnique.

Between 1925 and 1931 Lalique’s new factory focused on glass car bonnet ornaments. These wonderful frosted glass mascots, which could be illuminated for maximum effect, graced the bonnets and radiator covers of cars designed by Hispano Suiza, Bugatti and Bentley.

The Breves Gallery in London’s Knightsbridge was retained by Lalique to sell to British customers and they subsequently acquired commercial rights to Lalique mascots for the world. The name “Breves Gallery London” was stamped on each mascot’s mount. 

The mounting rings offered by the Breves Gallery meant that the car’s owner could add to the aesthetics of their already beautifully styled cars by the addition of these trophy mascots.

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During this era, a range of twenty-nine designs were made available including the famous “Sirene” (“Mermaid”) statuette, which was available in two sizes.

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Lalique also sold the same products mounted on a metal or glass base as paperweights. 

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“La Grande Libellule” (the Large Dragonfly), “Five Horses” – the first mascot to be commissioned in 1925 for use on the Citroen’s 5CV – “Victoire” (“Spirit of the Wind”) – which originally sold for £2-12/6 – “Vitesse” and “Chrysis” are personal favourites. 

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The base of each genuine Lalique glass mascot is signed with a stamped, molded or etched signature that usually simply reads “R. Lalique”.

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Seven of the original designs continue to appear in the current Lalique catalogue. These include “Chrysis”, “Eagle’s Head” and “Cock’s Head”. Lalique & Co, which ceased to be in family ownership in 2008, still sells these designs as paperweights.

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Inevitable Heath and Safety concerns have weighted heavily on the car mascot market. Since 1968 in the USA and 1974 in Europe, cars have had to conform to rigorous rules governing exterior projections that are fixed to their bonnets. 

Rolls Royce invested heavily and devised a retractable solution – see our earlier piece on the iconic Spirit of Ecstasy here – The Spirit of Ecstasy – Mercedes-Benz also developed a spring-loaded flexible mount that folds on impact.

Image Credits – R Lalique et Cie, Maison Coty and Wartski.

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Land Rover Defender

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The Land Rover Defender (known by most – depending on the wheelbase chosen – as either a Land Rover 90 or 110) was a British built 4 x 4 utility vehicle developed from and finally replacing the iconic Land Rover Series first launched in 1948. First introduced in 1983 the last model of this design classic was produced in January 2016 when European design regulations rendered the Defender’s design redundant.

The post 1983 may seem in many respects similar to Series III version of the Land Rover but this re-imagined Land Rover had for example permanent four wheel drive – derived from the Range Rover – and progressively over succeeding years more powerful and varied choices of engines were made available from 2.25-litre petrol and diesel engines, to 2.5-litre petrol up to 3.5-litre petrol only version and a V8 was particularly used on the 90 version.

Either by cleaver placing or by coincidence, the use of larger 4×4 as private vehicles – as opposed to their more agricultural focussed predecessors, played well into Land Rover marketing. Using the badge “County” the Defender 4x4s were sold as multi-purpose family vehicles with improved interior trim, ride, colour options, wheel rims and seating.

Land Rover was beginning to capitalise on its home market and to make an impact on the European market but elsewhere in the world the legacy of poor quality from the days of British Leyland meant that in other target markets such as the Far East Toyota Land Cruisers and Nissan’s Patrol were dominant.

Due to the introduction of the Discover model in 1989 the old 90/110 was re-christened the Defender when it acquired the new and well performing 200Tdi engine which improved the Defenders ability to cruise at higher speeds and tow heavier loads.

In 1998, the upcoming Euro III emissions regulations the Defender was given an all-new 2.5-litre, five-cylinder in-line turbodiesel engine, badged the Td5. For 2002 model year, the Td5 engine was further refined to satisfy ever-more stringent emission regulations. Again to clear emissions hurdles for the 2007 model the TD5 engine was replaced by Ford’s Dagenham built DuraTorq line engine.  Combine this with the replacement of  four inward-facing seats with two forward-facing seats and the Defender 90 4×4 a four-seater vehicle and the Defender 110 4×4 a seven-seater.

External and internal safety regulations due in 2015 spelt the death knell of the Defender. On the plus side various reports suggest that the Defender’s replacement may be announced by Land Rover – in part based on the DC1oo concept car shown at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show – before the end of 2106 – we’ll have to wait and see.

Photo from Land Rover

 

Kodak Super 8

Kodak Super 8 – re-imagine a classic

Designed by Yves Behar, Ilgu Cha, Sarah Neurnberger, Steven Overman, Danielle Atkins.

Available from Q4 2016

Kodak are predicting an analogue renaissance with Steven Spielberg and JJ Abrams – both “real” film devotees – have been very enthusiastic about this launch.

A revived version of the 1965 original Super 8 Camera that revolutionised amateur filmmaking.

The 2016 version combines the core of traditional filmmaking techniques – using the Super 8mm amateur format analogue film – with enhanced digital features for a new generation.

Included is a new digitally enhanced version is very flexible view finder – which uniquely for a Super 8 shows you what you are filming – a body mic that syncs to an SD memory card, and HDMI connectors to take to your post production suite – probably on your lap top. With the purchase of your cartridge you pay for the film and the processing which includes the return of an analogue reel of film plays digital links in 4k quality to post to the Cloud for your own post production.

The Super 8mm cartridge loading eliminated the need for threading the film and meant that a complete 50-foot cartridge could be shot without interruption.

The cartridge fed back setting formation to the camera about the speed (ASA) of the film and light filter. In 1973 a magnetic strip was added to the side of the film that made it possible to record sound and visuals simultaneously.

Still a preferred medium for short films, commercial and music videos the unique aesthetic quality of the Super 8 is re-imagined in this compact and easy to use film camera.

Its not for those seeking a quick footage fix but for those keen to to learn more Kodak have a series of tips on using your Super 8 – http://www.kodak.com/Consumer/Products/Super8/Super-8-tips/default.htm

Photo by Kodak